Biodiversity and genetic improvement

Biodiversity and genetic improvement represent the indicator for measuring the ecosystemic complexity of a farm. It measures the criticalities of the simplification of production processes, of the monospecific nature of agronomic choices, of the use of modified genetic resources and at the same time of genetic variability aimed both at the perpetuation of the species and the greater resistance to threats caused by adversity.
If genetic improvement represents the scientific and professional progress of the agronomic world, it is necessary to take effective actions to stop the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure the resilience of ecosystems

Goal 2
End hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
Target 2.5
Maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants, farm and domestic animals and related wild species, including through diversified seed banks and plants that are properly managed at national, regional and international level; promote access and fair and equitable sharing of benefits deriving from the use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as agreed at international level

Goal 15
Protect, restore and promote a sustainable use of the terrestrial ecosystem
Target 15.6
Promote a fair and equitable distribution of benefits deriving from the use of genetic resources and promote equitable access to these resources, as agreed at international level
Target 15.9
Integrate the principles of ecosystem and biodiversity into national and local projects, in development processes and strategies and reports for poverty reduction
Target 15.a
Mobilize and significantly increase economic resources from every source to preserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

Action3

Planning and design of biodiverse food systems for resilient ecosystems

Biodiversity is the variability of living organisms and includes diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species and ecosystems. These are what are ordinarily defined as the three levels of biodiversity.

Biodiversity provides the basis of agriculture by maintaining in the evolution of a consistent genetic variability within the cultivated and raised species. To this end we speak of agricultural biodiversity or agro-biodiversity which includes all the components of biodiversity that, more specifically, are important for food and agriculture. In summary, everything that is of real interest in the agricultural sector, be it vegetable or animal and which man uses and / or has used in his own diet, defines agro-biodiversity.

Given the primary role of agricultural biodiversity in the environmental balance, the priority becomes the adoption of production models capable of supporting the ecosystem through active services that influence the places of cultivation or growth of species and breeds.

Agricultural biodiversity is the result of the natural selection that man has been able to identify and value for the interest that it has assumed for agriculture. Its conservation therefore depends on the correct management and application of sustainable production methods.

A characteristic of the main plant and animal species to which humanity is linked for its diet has been their ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition, the diversity of crops also contributes to a selection in terms of quality of food that improves with the variety of foods consumed, particularly in fruit and vegetables. These aspects are very important when discussing the availability of foods that can contribute to nutritional diversification through different food diets that can contribute to the fight against malnutrition, obesity and other health problems in all parts of the world.

Activable Pilot Projects

Pilot Projects can concern one or more targets of the objectives identified as well as one or more general indicators. For the purposes of verification and measurability and related accounting in the definition of the executive planning, specific indicators will be identified among those defined in the Global Indicator Framework 2019 of the SDG.

The pilot projects that can be activated in Action C.3 are the following:

• Cadastre of agricultural biodiversity

• Genetic and functional characterization of biodiverse species

• Conservation of fertility and soil biodiversity

• Enhancement of native genetic resources.